From 1914 to 1918 it embroiled most of the nations of Europe. the United States, Russia, the Middle East, and other regions. The Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Turkey were pitted against the Allies — Great Britain, Russia, France, Japan, Italy and, from 1917, the United States.
in this article, we look at the contribution of our Indian soldiers in World War I.
INDIAN ARMY IN World War I
13 lakh Indian soldiers fought in World War I, Served in France, Belgium, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Gallipoli, Palestine and Sinai and Fought against Germans in East Africa, Western Front.
Serving European, the Mediterranean and the Middle East regions 74,187 Indian soldiers died while many Killed in European trenches.69,214 soldiers were wounded,100 million British Pounds to fund World War I
Provided 1.7 lakh animals.
- 1914: Jawans stopped German forces in Ypres, 4,000 soldiers killed in Battle of Neuve Chapelle.
- 1,000 Indian soldiers killed in Gallipoli.
- 7,00,000 Indian soldiers fought in Mesopotamia.
BATTLE OF HAIFA
400 lancers of 15th cavalry fought including Jodhpur, Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhavanagar, Baroda, Idar and Jamnagar. 23 Sept 1918: Indian troops seized Haifa. Troops battled 1500 men of the Turkish army, Lancers fought with only spears & 1,350 Germans, Ottoman prisoners
- Eight Indian soldiers killed.
- 34 soldiers wounded.
- 60 horses killed in battle.
World War I PARTICIPANTS
The Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
The Triple Entente: Great Britain, France and Russia.
World War I TIMELINE
- 28 June 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by a Serbian man.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
- Russia got involved because Russia had an alliance with Serbia, Germany then declared war on Russia because Germany had an alliance with Austria-Hungary.
- 4 August 1914 – Britain declared war on Germany because of its invasion of neutral Belgium, 7 August 1914 – First shots of World War One were fired in Africa.
- 23 August 1914 – The Battle of Mons in Belgium was the British Army’s first engagement in France. 5 September 1914 – As the German Army advances towards Paris, French and British soldiers counterattack along the line of the River Marne.
- 10 October 1914 – The Indian Army joins the war.
- 31 October 1914 – Siege of Tsingtao.
- 3 January 1915 – First use of poison gas.
- 25 April 1915 – Australian, New Zealand, British, French and Indian troops mount an amphibious landing to take the peninsula of Gallipoli. But the Allies suffer a crushing defeat. 7 May 1915- The sinking of the Lusitania.
- 27 January 1916 – Conscription introduced in Britain,21 February 1916 – This is the longest single battle of World War One and lasts nine months. The Germans fail to break through or exhaust the French army ng defeat.
- 31 May 1916 – In the biggest naval battle of the war the British lose more ships than the Germans and fail to destroy the German High Seas Fleet. But the German Navy retreats and remains bottled up in its the North Sea and Baltic ports.
- 1 July 1916 – The Battle of the Somme is one of the largest and bloodiest conflicts of World War One. Nearly 20,000 British soldiers die on the first day,6 April 1917 – America enters the war.
- 8 November 1917 – In March 1917 there is a popular uprising in Russia and Tsar Nicholas II abdicates.. Russia leaves the war signing an armistice in December. 21 March 1918 – Germany launches the Spring Offensive.
- July 1918 – Hundred Days Offensive.
- 11 November 1918 – Armistice.
- 1919 – The Treaty of Versailles imposes harsh terms on Germany forcing them to accept the blame for the war and pay huge reparations.
World War I CAUSES: MUTUAL DEFENSE: ALLIANCES
- Germany seeing Russia mobilizing declared war on Russia.
- France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
- Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war.
- Later Japan, Italy and U.S. entered on the side of the allies.
- British Empire extended over 5 continents and France had control of large areas of Africa.
- The rise of industrialism led the need of new markets.
World War I CAUSES: IMPERIALISM
Amount of lands ‘owned by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany.
The desire for greater empires led to an increase in the confrontation.
World War I CAUSES: MILITARISM
The colonial rivalry had led to a naval arms race between Britain and Germany.
The British-german dispute also led to greater naval co-operation between Britain and France.
World War I CAUSES: NATIONALISM
Nationalism was a great cause of World War I.
Nationalist groups in Austria-Hungary and Serbia wanted independence.
France wanted Alsace Lorraine back from Germany.
World War I CONSEQUENCES
- War caused the downfall of 4 monarchies: Germany, Turkey, Austria-Hungary & Russia.
- The beginning of the end of European supremacy.
- The emergence of USA as a superpower.
- WW1 changed the face of modern warfare forever.
- Casualties of men led to women becoming breadwinners.
- New boundary lines drew for Austria, Germany and Turkey.
- Inflation shot up in most countries.
- Japan became a powerful country in Asia.