With this announcement on the all India radio on the morning of 26 June 1975 then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared an emergency in India. she said the president has declared a state of emergency and there is no need to panic. the decision to proclaim emergency was taken under article 352 of the Constitution because of internal disturbance.
The right to free speech and personal liberty has been clampdown and only censored news was available. Critics describe the 21-month long emergency as the darkest chapter in the history of Indian democracy. imposed on the night of 25th June 1975 by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is suspended fundamental rights of a citizen and triggered large-scale protest against.
Before the radio broadcast emergency was officially issued on the 25th of June 1975 by then president Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed on the recommendation of then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, LK Advani, Ashok Mehta and all other opposition leaders had put behind the jail.number of activists and journalist also arrested under the defence of India rules and maintenance of internal security act. emergency withdrawal on the 21st of March 1977.
Why did Indira Gandhi proclaim emergency?
Just days before emergency was imposed in the country. Allahabad High Court found Indira Gandhi guilty of electoral malpractices. the 12 June 1975 judgement of the Allahabad High Court declared her election null and void. Indira Gandhi went to Supreme Court and on the 24th June, the apex court branch stays on the high court order but allowed her to continue as Prime Minister.
In the 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Indira Gandhi defeated opposition candidate Raj Narayan from the Rae Bareli constituency. Raj Narayan filled a petition in the Allahabad High Court accusing Indira Gandhi of electoral malpractices and misusing government machinery.
Indira Gandhi was cross-examined in the High Court and on the 12th of June 1975 justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha found the Prime Minister guilty of misuse of government machinery during her election campaign and declared her election null and void.
The high court also bought Indira Gandhi from contesting in elections to the next 6 years, however, give the Congress 20 days time to make arrangements to replace Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister Indira Gandhi challenge the high court verdict in the supreme court. Supreme court also found guilty of India Gandhi.25th June 1975 Jayaprakash Narayan address the huge rally at the Ramlila Ground in Delhi. He repeats the slogan Singhason Khali Karo Ki Janta Aati Hai.
Indira son Sanjay Gandhi played a vital role in the imposition of emergency. Indira Gandhi had also consulted some special Advisors include Indian Law Minister Gokhale and West Bengal chief minister Siddharth Shankar before proclaiming an emergency in the country.
Background In Brief
- Indira Gandhi defeated Raj Narain in Rae Bareli1971.
- Raj Narain filed a petition in Allahabad HC, accused Indira Gandhi of electoral malpractices.
- Indira Gandhi cross-examined in Allahabad High Court.
- June 12, 1975: Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha found Indira Gandhi guilty of misusing govt machinery.
- Allahabad HC declared Indira Gandhi’s election null and void.
- HC barred her from contesting elections for six years.
- Indira Gandhi approached SC.
- June 24, 1975: SC granted a partial stay on HC order.
- SC order said Gandhi could remain an MP till her appeal was decided, but couldn’t take part in LS proceedings.
How Many People Put In Jail During Emergency
In periods of 21 months over 1 lakh, people were put in jail without trial during an emergency. thousand media persons jailed and the Judiciary was no right to the action. democracy was converted into a virtual autocracy.
Indira Gandhi is loyalists advised Indira to impose an internal emergency in order to deal with the massive political opposition desertion because the country was facing a social and economic crisis, monsoon fails prices economic growth, the unemployment rate was at a peak.
Proclamation Of Emergency In 1975
- PM Indira Gandhi recommended to the President to proclaim a state of Emergency.
- Power supply to all major newspaper offices disconnected.
- Power restored only after censorship apparatus was set up.
- Opposition leader, workers arrested early morning on June 26.
- Indira Gandhi announced the declaration of Emergency through All India Radio.
- The Emergency was withdrawn on March 21, 1977.
Impact Of Emergency In India
- Maintenance of Internal Security Act strengthenedJayaprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, LK Advani and George Fernandes arrested.
- Congress Working Committee member Chandrashekhar arrested.
- Govt suspended right to move the court for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
- Arrested leaders were not allowed to meet anyone.
- 42nd Amendment of Constitution of India enacted.
- Amendment to reduce the power of the Supreme Court, High Courts.
- Fundamental Duties of Indian citizens laid down.
- Articles 14, 19, 21, 22 of the Constitution suspended.
- All possible bans on media.
- Strict censoring implemented on the press.
- Code of conduct announced for the press.
- Newspaper editors arrested for writing anti-government articles.
- Kishore Kumar banned by All India Radio.
Proclamation Of Emergency
- ARTICLE 352 President can impose emergency if he agrees grave security threat exists by war, external aggression or armed rebellion.
- ARTICLE 356 Emergency can be declared in any state of India on the recommendation of the governor of the state.
- ARTICLE 360 President can impose financial emergency if financial stability or credit of India or of any part of the territory is threatened.
Emergency Era (1975-77)
- 38th Amendment – judicial review of proclamations of emergency was barred.
- 39th Amendment – stripped the judiciary’s power of electoral scrutiny of a person elected as a PM.
- Changes in several constitutional provisions through the 40th and 41 st amendments.
- After 42nd Amendment, people started calling the Constitution of Indira instead of the Constitution of India.
- Amendment which gave importance to the policy guidelines principles over fundamental rights of the common man.
- After 1977 elections, the Janata Party government was formed.
- SC, HCs were given their rights back through the 43rd amendment
- 44th Amendment brought Constitution to its original state.
- Prevented similar condition to an emergency from being repeated
- Armed rebellion’ replaced with internal unrest.
India News Media During Emergency
In those days of emergency, media, which is called the fourth pillar of democracy, also missed the historic opportunity of cooperating with the common citizens of the country.
They bowed before the autocratic government.
M Venkaiah Naidu, Vice-President
Honourable exceptions like Ramnath Goenka’s The Indian Express, The Statesman and Mainstream The attitude of media was later famously described by LK Advani, who said that the press crawled when it was asked to bend.
For Better View or offline reading, you can download GkPadho Official App from Google Play Store.